A solar AC power generation system is composed of solar panels, charge controllers, PV inverters, and batteries. A solar DC power generation system does not include inverters. The process of transforming AC electrical energy into DC electrical energy is called rectification. The circuit that completes the rectification function is called the rectifier circuit, and the device that implements the rectification process is called the rectification equipment or rectifier. Conversely, the process of converting DC electrical energy into AC electrical energy is called inversion. The circuit that completes the inversion function is called the inverter circuit, and the device that implements the inversion process is called the inverter equipment or inverter.
Understanding the future development trend of PV inverters
Inverters are the "brain" of PV power generation systems. In the process of power generation, a PV array generates DC electricity. However, most loads require AC electricity. DC power supply systems have significant limitations and are not convenient for voltage replacement. The scope of load application is also limited. Therefore, except for specific power consumption, most of the time, inverters are used to convert DC electricity into AC electricity. PV inverters are power electronic devices equipped with corresponding protective functions that convert DC electricity produced by solar panels into AC electricity and transmit it to loads or power grids.
The PV inverter is mainly composed of power modules, transformers, circuit breakers, control boards, reactors, filters, contactors, and integrated cabinets. During production, it includes electronic component processing, machine installation and debugging, testing, and packaging, etc. Its development relies on the development trend of electric power technology, semiconductor component technology, and control technology.
For PV inverters, improving power conversion efficiency is an eternal topic in the industry. When the system efficiency becomes higher, almost reaching 100%, efficiency improvement will follow the price decrease. Therefore, how to maintain high efficiency while maintaining a good price advantage is the key to the current stage.
Compared with the effort to improve the efficiency of PV inverters, solar PV inverter improving the overall efficiency of the inverter system has become another key point of solar energy systems. In a solar array, when 2%-3% of the area is shaded, for an inverter with MPPT function, the power output of the system may even decrease by about 20% under unfavorable conditions. Ensuring that solar components are not obstructed is vital.
Overall, the future development of inverter technology is accompanied by the development of electronic power technology, microelectronic technology, and modern control theory. With the progress of the times, inverter technology is evolving towards higher power, higher frequency, better efficiency, and smaller size.
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