Important Technical Parameters of Off Grid Inverters
When choosing an off-grid inverter, several technical parameters are also very important, such as system voltage, rated power, peak power, conversion efficiency, switching time, etc. The selection of these parameters has a great impact on the power demand of the load.
System voltage and rated power
The voltage refers to the voltage of the battery pack. The input voltage of the off-grid inverter is consistent with the output voltage of the controller. When designing and selecting, attention should be paid to keeping it consistent with the controller.
The rated power of the off-grid inverter is expressed in two ways. One is the apparent power method, with the unit of VA, which is a reference to UPS marking. The actual output active power needs to be multiplied by the power factor. For example, for a 500VA off-grid inverter, the power factor is 0.8, and the actual output active power is 400W, which can drive resistive loads such as lamps and electric stoves. The second is the active power expression method, with the unit of W, such as a 5000W off-grid inverter with an actual output active power of 5000W.
In photovoltaic off-grid systems, the components, battery packs, Microtek Solar Inverter, and loads constitute the electrical system. The output power of the inverter is determined by the load. Some inductive loads, such as air conditioners and water pumps, have starting power that is 3-5 times their rated power, so the off-grid inverter has special requirements for overload. Peak power is the overload capacity of the off-grid inverter.
The inverter provides start-up energy for the load. Part of it comes from the battery or photovoltaic components. The excess part is provided by the energy storage elements in the inverter capacitance and inductance. Capacitance and inductance are both energy storage elements. The difference is that the capacitance stores electrical energy in the form of an electric field. The larger the capacitance, the more electrical energy is stored. Inductance stores energy in the form of a magnetic field. The larger the permeability of the magnetic core of the inductance, the greater the inductance and the more energy can be stored.
Efficiency and transfer time
The efficiency of the off-grid system includes two aspects. One is the efficiency of the machine itself. The off-grid inverter has a complex circuit and needs to go through multiple transformations, so the overall efficiency is slightly lower than that of the on-grid inverter, generally between 80% and 90%. The higher the power of the inverter, the higher the efficiency. A high-frequency isolation type inverter is more efficient than low-frequency isolation; and the higher the system voltage, the higher the efficiency. The second is the efficiency of battery charging and discharging, which is related to the type of battery. When photovoltaic generation and load are used at the same time, photovoltaics can directly supply the load without the need for battery conversion.
When the off-grid system is loaded, there are three modes: photovoltaic, battery, and utility. When the energy of the battery is insufficient and it switches to utility mode, there is a switching time. Some off-grid inverters use electronic switches to switch within 10 milliseconds. Desktop computers will not shut down and lighting will not flicker. Some off-grid inverters use relays to switch, and the time may exceed 20 milliseconds, and desktop computers may shut down or restart.
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