The inverter is the brain and heart of a PV power generation system. In the process of solar PV power generation, the electrical energy generated by the PV array is DC power. However, many loads require AC power. DC power supply systems have great limitations, making it inconvenient to change voltage and have a limited range of load applications. Except for special loads, a PV inverter is needed to convert DC power into AC power. The PV inverter is the heart of the solar PV power generation system, which converts the DC power generated by the PV module into AC power and delivers it to the local load or power grid, and is equipped with relevant protection functions of power electronic equipment.
PV inverters are mainly composed of power modules, control circuit boards, breakers, filters, reactors, transformers, contactors, cabinets, and other components. The production process includes electronic component pre-processing, assembly of the entire machine, testing and packaging, and other process steps. Its development depends on the development of power electronics technology, semiconductor device technology, and modern control technology.
For PV inverters, improving the conversion efficiency of the power supply is an eternal topic. But when the efficiency of the system becomes higher and higher, almost close to 100%, further improvement in efficiency will lead to a decline in cost-effectiveness. Therefore, how maintaining high efficiency and maintaining good price competitiveness will be an important challenge at present.
Compared with the efforts to improve the efficiency of the inverter, how to improve the efficiency of the entire inverter system is gradually becoming another important subject of solar energy systems. In a solar array, when local shadows of 2%-3% area appear, for PV inverters with an MPPT function, the system output power can be significantly reduced by about 20% under harsh conditions. In order to better adapt to such situations for individual or part of solar energy components, using one-to-one MPPT or multiple MPPT control functions is a very effective method.
In addition, the power system is welcoming the rapid development and popularization of smart grid technology. The grid connection of a large amount of new energy power systems such as solar energy presents new technical challenges to the stability of smart grid systems. Designing inverters that can be more rapidly, accurately, and intelligently compatible with smart grids will become a necessary condition for the future of solar energy inverters.
Overall, the development of inverter technology is developing with the development of power electronics technology, microelectronics technology, and modern control theory. With the passage of time, inverter technology is moving towards higher frequency, greater power, higher efficiency, and smaller size.
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